The DSM-5-TR refers to disordered problems with reading as a Specific Learning Disorder, with impairment in reading. This assessment for Dyslexia encompasses the criteria of dyslexia, but also includes problems with word reading accuracy, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. I prefer this more comprehensive definition of a learning disorder in reading because it accounts for other factors that can contribute to reading problems, and in my opinion, helps to identify more children with reading problems. The school multidisciplinary team determines what tests and assessments are necessary to complete a thorough evaluation. To be eligible for special education services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act , multidisciplinary team findings must demonstrate that the disability of dyslexia has a significant impact on student performance. The bottom line is that schools cannot diagnose dyslexia (check out our blog “Why Can’t My School Diagnose Learning Disabilities” to learn more).
In fact, according to the National Institute of Health , reading disabilities can be diagnosed as early as age 5 1/2, or the last half of kindergarten. A school evaluation focuses on determining if a child qualifies for an IEP under an IDEA disability category. A private neuropsychological evaluation can be sought to provide a diagnosis which is different from the IDEA disability categories. Measuring these requires a variety of educational, psychometric and psychological tests. This is why it is important for an assessor to be conversant with technical terms and broader developments in the field.
Good evaluators will also schedule a face-to-face meeting to discuss the results. Some people may fear that a diagnostic label could create or exacerbate stigma. This is understandable, given the widespread misunderstandings about dyslexia in our culture.
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However, having a name for the learning struggles is a huge relief, and clarity always lights the way for the best path forward. We have yet to meet a parent or child who has regretted getting a formal diagnosis of dyslexia. 讀寫障礙評估 of dyslexia helps a person understand that the reading difficulties are due to a brain difference, not lack of intelligence. Dyslexia tests that target reading comprehension are usually interested in either literal comprehension, inferential comprehension, or both. Literal comprehension is a reader’s understanding of the events and information in a text.
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The student who puts odd letter combinations together, such as kpz, does not have a strong sense of English orthography. The first and second steps in Figure 1 pertain to demonstrating evidence of low achievement in reading. In thinking about Sam, Monica and the eligibility team would first consider data specific to Sam’s reading performance that were collected as part of the prereferral (i.e., RTI) process.
Finally psychology offices need to worry about compliance with all regulations in their jurisdiction. This can include practice-related reporting, taxes, and professional licensing fees. While these all vary widely by location, in many cases the costs add up quickly.